Bees and non target arthropods

The Tier I risk assessment for both bees and non-target arthropods is conducted using the hazard quotient (HQ) approach. If an acceptable risk cannot be demonstrated, then higher tier consideration may be required.

Current Guidance Document

This guidance document references more detailed guidance.

  • For bees EPPO (2002) Environmental risk assessment scheme for plant protection products. Chapter 11 honeybees.
  • For non target arthropods the ESCORT 2 workshop report.


Honeybee and bumblebee toxicity studies

OECD guidelines and guidance documents for toxicity studies are available on the OECD website.

It is noted that some testing facilities have conducted acute oral and contact toxicity studies on honeybees that reference OECD 213 and 214, respectively, but that are not strictly in accordance with these protocols. Further details regarding these studies and a HSE Statement are available.

Non target arthropods

Non-target arthropod toxicity studies

M.P. CANDOLFI, S. BLÜMEL, R. FORSTER et al. (2000): Guidelines to evaluate side-effects of plant protection products to non-target arthropods. IOBC, BART and EPPO Joint Initiative. Copies of this publication are available from SETAC-Europe (

Mead-Briggs et al. (2009) An extended laboratory test for evaluating the effects of plant protection products on the parasitic wasp, Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).

Additional guidance for non-target arthropods

Formulation studies

For guidance on the need for ecotoxicology formulation studies and their use in risk assessment, along with how to consider the combined risk for relevant groups, use the link below.

Risk assessment notes

In 2002 the Environmental Panel of the Advisory Committee on Pesticides ACP discussed the risk assessment for non-target arthropods in the context of 91/414/EEC (now Regulation 1107/2009 as it applies in Great Britain and Northern Ireland). More specifically they discussed the proceedings from the European Standard Characteristics of Non-Target Arthropod Regulatory Testing (ESCORT2 ) workshop (see note below) and how this proposed approach could be incorporated into regulatory risk assessment for UK registration.

These views will be taken into account when assessing the risk to non-target arthropods.

The assessment of the risk to non-target arthropods by ESCORT 2 uses two indicator species and dose response studies. It uses this information to generate a 'hazard quotient' for both the in-field and off-field environment.

Guidance on the labelling and risk management strategies for pesticides and non-target arthropods is available in the general guidance on environmental hazard and risk labelling document.

>Note: Guidance Document on Regulatory Testing and Risk Assessment Procedures for Plant Protection Products with Non-Target Arthropods. From the ESCORT 2 Workshop (European Standard Characteristics of Non-Target Arthropod Regulatory Testing). Ed: MP Candolfi, KL Barrett, PJ Campbell, R Forster, N Grandy, M-C Huet, G Lewis, PA Oomen, R Schmuck, H Vogt. Copies of this publication are available from SETAC-Europe (


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Updated 2024-04-26