The UK has left the EU, and some rules and procedures have changed from 1 January 2021.

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Use the A - Z to get straight to the glossary term you are interested in. Here you will find a glossary of common terms relating to equipment product safety.



The formal process by which an Approved Body or laboratory / test-house is judged (by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) for UK bodies), in how it meets the requirements for undertaking conformity assessment or statutory testing.

Appropriate conformity marking:

Visible, legible  UKCA marking or CE marking as required for the UK or European single market by the relevant product legislation, accompanied with other details, eg manufacturer, and where required importer, address details and other information required by the relevant product legislation.

Approved body (also known as a conformity assessment body):

A UK body that performs conformity assessment activities including calibration, testing, certification and inspection, which is approved according to the relevant product legislation.


The name commonly given to the framework for controlling explosive atmospheres, and the standards of equipment and protective systems used in them. It is based on the requirements of the Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002 (for worker protection) and the Equipment and Protective Systems Intended for Use in Potentially Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2016 (for product safety).

Authorised representative:

Any natural or legal person as defined in product legislation who has received a written mandate to act on a manufacturer's behalf in relation to their obligations under the relevant product legislation.



Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, which has the policy lead for much product safety legislation.


CE marking:

Marking made by manufacturers, indicating that a product conforms with the requirements set out in European Community harmonisation legislation. It must be visible, legible and indelible.


The member states of the European Union.

Community harmonisation legislation:

Any Community legislation (eg Directives and Regulations) harmonising the conditions for the marketing of products. In addition to the EU member states, four others (three EEA states and Switzerland, which has bilateral agreements) have adopted Community harmonisation legislation.

Conformity assessment:

The process demonstrating whether specified requirements relating to a product, process, service, system, person or body have been fulfilled.


Declaration of Conformity:

A document containing information specified by particular product legislation, declaring in what way conformity with the provisions of that legislation have been fulfilled.

Declaration of Incorporation:

A document containing information specified by the product legislation concerned with machinery, declaring that partly completed machinery is intended for incorporation into other machinery or equipment to form a machine in scope of that machinery legislation.

Declaration of Performance:

A document containing information specified by the Construction Products Regulations (CPR) where it is required for construction products being placed on the market (such as timber, cement, steel, door/window sets, etc for incorporation into buildings) according to the requirements of relevant CPR standard.


Any natural or legal person in the supply chain, other than the manufacturer or the importer, who makes a product available on the market.


Economic operator:

The manufacturer, the authorised representative, the importer and the distributor.


The European Economic Area, which includes the EU member states, and Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway - which are allowed to participate in the EU's single market without conventional EU membership. Although Switzerland has not joined the EEA, it has agreed to adopt and be bound by most Product Supply Directives.

Essential health and safety requirements, also known as essential requirements or safety objectives:

Mandatory requirements for health and / or safety imposed by a particular Directive for products within scope of that Directive.

Explosion protection mark:

The 'Ex' mark within a hexagon symbol required by Essential Health and Safety Requirement 1.0.5 of the legislation concerned with ATEX compliant products.


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UK Government office website with authoritative information on wide range of issues including product supply issues.


Harmonised standard:

A standard, prepared under mandate from CEN (the European Committee for Standardisation) to support one or more European Directives or Regulations concerning products, which has been published in the Official Journal of the European Union. Those products meeting the scope and application of such a standard are presumed to conform with one or more essential health and safety requirements of product legislation.


Importer (UK):

Any natural or legal person established within the United Kingdom (UK) who places a product from a country outside the GB market.


Provide users with details of how to safely install, set, use, clean, maintain, dispose, etc of a product so that the health and safety objectives of any product legislation applying to that product can be met when undertaking those activities.

Local authority:

A borough, district or unitary authority, which is empowered to deliver local services, usually - in the context of market surveillance - services of a consumer protection nature.



Any natural or legal person who manufactures a product or has a product designed or manufactured, and markets that product under their name or trademark.

Market surveillance:

The activities carried out and measures taken by public authorities to ensure that products comply with product supply legislation and do not endanger health, safety or any other aspect of public interest. Further information on market surveillance is available.

Market surveillance authority:

An authority of a member state responsible for carrying out market surveillance in its territory.


Notified body (also known as a conformity assessment body):

A body that performs conformity assessment activities including calibration, testing, certification and inspection which is approved according to the relevant single market product legislation.


Partly completed machinery:

An assembly which is almost machinery but cannot in itself perform a specific application (eg a drive system). Partly completed machinery is only intended to be incorporated into or assembled with other machinery, or other partly completed machinery or equipment - thereby forming machinery to which the product legislation concerning machinery applies.

Placing on the market:

Making a product available on the market for the first time for distribution, consumption or use in the course of a commercial activity, whether in return for payment or free of charge.

Product safety:

The name traditionally used by HSE for the process of monitoring and enforcing health and safety requirements for the design, construction and supply of products.

Putting into service:

The first time a product is put to use, even if it has not been placed on, or made available to, the market.



A European database for market surveillance authorities to rapidly share and exchange information about products presenting serious risk.


A regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals. More information on REACH is available.


Any measure requesting the return of a product that has already been made available to the end user.


The repair, maintenance and / or modification of an existing product, the extent of which may be minor, substantial or involve complete dismantling and reassembly - while leaving the product essentially unchanged - but can involve significant or substantial modification with new features, function or control. Refurbishment of existing machinery may bring the product within scope of the product legislation concerning machinery.

Responsible person:

Usually the manufacturer or their authorised representative, but can include others who place products on the market, or in the case of machinery and where not placed on the market, puts it into service for the first time.


Safeguard action:

The procedure by which a European market surveillance authority informs the European Commission of formal action taken to prohibit or restrict a product from the free market, and by which the Commission investigates to see if the action was correct and if confirmed, informs other member states so they can take appropriate action.

Second-hand supply:

Any supply of a product which is not being placed on the market for the first time. Further information on second-hand supply, including auctions.


Are an 'an agreed, repeatable way of doing something' (BSI). Normally they are published documents containing technical information to guide or define practice in a consistent way. Usually standards are prepared and published at national or international level.


Includes anyone making a product available to an end user or others in the supply chain; which can include manufacturers, importers and distributors.


Technical file:

A collection of information demonstrating how a product meets the requirements of relevant product legislation.

Technical specification:

A document that prescribes the technical requirements to be fulfilled by a product, process or service.

Third country product:

Any product which was manufactured outside the EEA or Switzerland.


UK marking

UK marking as required by specific UK product legislation for specified products placed on the UK market following the UK's departure from the EU on 31 December 2020. It must be visible, legible and from 1 January 2024 it must be permanently attached , and usually accompanied by other details eg manufacturer and/or importers address etc as specified by the particular legislation. Its form (see below) is specified by Article 30 and Annex 2 of Regulation (EC) 765/2008 as amended.




Any measure aimed at removing a product from the supply chain and so stopping it from being made available on the market.

Updated: 2023-02-23