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Hazardous substances

What you need to know

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) requires employers to ensure that the exposure of employees to substances that are hazardous to health is either prevented or, where this is not reasonably practicable, adequately controlled.

These web pages provide guidance on the most common hazardous substances found in the woodworking industry.

Hardwood dust can cause a rare form of nasal cancer. As well as causing asthma, wood dust, sap and the lichens associated with wood can have adverse health effects on the skin, respiratory tract (nose and lungs), eyes as well as the whole body.

Some chemicals used in the woodworking industries, such as solvent based stains, varnishes, paints and adhesives, as well as those in wood preservatives and industrial treatment plants, can have serious effects on the liver, kidneys and central nervous system.

The Table shows some of the main substances that can cause health risks as well as the controls you may need. Particular care should be taken when using dichloromethane (DCM), also known as methylene chloride, a solvent used to strip paint from wood. As well as being classed as a carcinogen, the vapour can cause drowsiness and headaches. In high concentrations, this can lead to unconsciousness and death. At present DCM can only be used for paint, varnish or lacquer stripping in industrial premises where appropriate safety measures are used.

Wood dust

Substance

Hardwood, softwood and wood composites - chipboard, medium density fibreboard (MDF) etc.

Health risk

Controls to consider

Solvents

Substance

Health risk       

Controls to consider

Select safer material like waterborne products. Use extraction ventilation. You may also need RPE. Use air fed RPE (breathing apparatus) in restricted spaces. Use a high efficiency spray gun. Provide protective clothing including protective gloves. Provide good general ventilation. Provide good washing facilities and skin creams.

Reactive systems

Substance

Health risk       

Controls to consider

 

Wood preservatives

Substance

Health risk       

Controls to consider

How can I protect my employees?

Use the information in the Table and your product safety data sheets to assess all work activities that may expose employees to any hazardous substances (this is your ‘COSHH assessment’). Remember to involve your employees in your assessment. This helps you cover all the risks for the tasks they actually carry out, and increases the chance that they will use the necessary control measures. Don’t forget to assess the risks involved in maintenance and cleaning tasks.

Always try to prevent exposure to a hazardous substance at source. You can:

If you can't prevent exposure, you need to control it adequately. For wood dust, use fixed local exhaust ventilation (LEV) that will effectively control the dust at source as it is produced.

Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) may be required but is no substitute for controlling the hazardous substance at source and you should only use it as additional protection. For example, you might need to use respirators (and other personal protection) as a temporary measure where engineering controls are being developed and/or modified. They may also be needed for short-term jobs such as cleaning and maintenance that produce high levels.

HSE’s COSHH website gives you information on what the law requires and advice on completing COSHH assessments. See also COSHH and Woodworkers key messages.

COSHH Health surveillance collects information to protect employees’ health by the early detection of adverse effects caused by exposure to hazardous substances. It is not a substitute for preventing or adequately controlling exposure, but it ensures that any adverse effect is detected at the earliest stage. It can also help in evaluating the effectiveness of the control measures detailed in the COSHH assessment. Sample questionnaires for wood dust health surveillance can be found on the wood dust page.

The main health risk is occupational asthma caused by inhalation of wood dust. Substances such as wood dusts and resins, solvents, paints, varnishes and strong detergents however, will also damage the skin. This may lead to skin soreness, blotches, cracking, itching and blisters. These are signs of irritant and allergic dermatitis. Most solvents can be absorbed through the skin and they can also pass through gloves if they are the wrong type. Choosing the right gloves is therefore important. If gloves get contaminated inside they should be thrown away. If you use latex gloves, provide ‘low-protein powder-free’ gloves. Train employees to examine skin for any unusual signs that might indicate exposure and to report any concerns to a responsible person.  

Biological monitoring techniques are available for some particular chemical substances used in woodworking (e.g. isocyanates, epoxy systems) and they can be used to determine whether employees are being occupationally exposed to those substances.

Find out more

Updated 2020-09-25