Collating papers

This case study shows a worker collating pages together into a document, which will eventually be bound together. Before reading this, it may be useful to read the "try it out" overview if you have not already.

Task description

Before you begin the assessment, watch the video for a few minutes to become familiar with the task and view the task from different angles.


Hover over individual rows for an explanation of each risk score.

Jogging sheets score elaborated Arm movements Repetition Force Head / neck posture Back posture Arm posture Wrist posture Hand / finger grip Breaks Work pace Other factors Task score Duration multiplier Exposure score

A1. Arm movements

There is almost continuous arm movement.

A2. Repetition

There are 14 similar motion patterns within a cycle time of about 12 seconds, so this factor is scored Red 6.

B. Force

There is no indication of any particular force involved in this task.

C1. Head / neck posture

The worker's head/neck is bent for more than half the time when looking down at the papers.

C2. Back posture

The worker's back is twisted for more than half the time when walking in either direction.

C3. Arm posture

The hands are at about waist height and the elbows are close to the body.

C4. Wrist posture

The left wrist extends back for part of the time when picking papers.

The right wrist is flexed forward for a part of the time when holding the papers.

C5. Hand / finger grip

The right hand holds the papers in a pinch grip for more than half the time.

The left hand does not grip awkwardly.

D1. Breaks

The longest duration of work without a break occurs between 12.45 and 4.30pm. This is greater than 3 hours duration, so this factor is scored Red 6.

D2. Work pace

The worker sets their own pace and reports that it is not difficult to keep up with the work.

D3. Other factors

The work is carried out in a well lit environment, and there are no other factors reported.

Task score

The task score, calculated for each arm separately, is the sum of the scores of all the risk factors.

For example:

6 + 6 + 0 + 2 + 2 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 6 + 0 + 0 = 23

D4. Duration multiplier

The worker performs the task for 8 hours per day, so the duration multiplier is 1.

Exposure score

The exposure score, calculated for each arm separately, is found by multiplying the task score by the duration multiplier.

For example:

23 x 1 = 23

The exposure score can be interpreted using the table of exposure levels.

Possible solutions to consider

Automation and mechanisation

The high rate of repetition is one of the key risk factors with this task. If this were a daily activity or a long production run an automatic collator could be used to do this task and leave the workers to do other better jobs.

Reduce exposure

Job rotation would reduce an individual's exposure to the risk factors mentioned in the risk assessment.

Adding extra activities to the job (job enlargement) could provide more variety in posture and speed of work. If these activities are different enough, they could reduce the scores assigned to several factors such as arm movements, repetition, and breaks. Regular breaks from this task would be essential if this task were performed all day.

Updated: 2021-01-27