Roadways / site traffic control / immobilisation of vehicles
This Technical Measures Document deals with design codes relating to
roadways, site traffic control and immobilisation of vehicles.
The relevant Level 2 Criteria are 22.214.171.124(35)b
and 126.96.36.199 (38) d.
Related Technical Measures documents are Site
The good design of roadways and the control of traffic on-site are
important factors in the prevention of road traffic accidents and an
important consideration in the prevention of major accident hazards on-site.
Collisions between moving vehicles, collisions between pedestrians and
moving vehicles, or the impact of a vehicle with stationary plant, vehicles
or equipment can lead to physical injuries and damage or a loss of
containment of chemicals. The detailed design and construction of roadways
is outside the scope of this technical measures document but some of the
important considerations relating to roadway design are highlighted below.
In addition the safe and correct immobilisation of vehicles during tanker
loading and unloading operations and at other times when on site is also an
important factor in the prevention of site major accident hazards.
This technical measures document considers the following elements:
- Design Codes - Roadways;
- Site Traffic Control;
- Immobilisation of Vehicles; and
- Operational Issues.
General principles - Design Codes: Roadways
In principle the road layout, signing and marking should be as similar to
the public road network as possible and be such that all road users can
reasonably understand what is required of them. Roads should be designed to
accommodate the largest vehicles that may have to use them in respect of
pavement construction, width, radius, gradient, clearance and visibility.
Access routes on-site are required for pedestrians, cyclists and road
traffic. Access is required for the transport of equipment and materials,
for emergency vehicle access and maintenance purposes. Roadways and access
routes should be designed to provide a safe environment for all users and
hence reduce the likelihood of road traffic accidents occurring.
Road layout & geometry
The following are important considerations in the design of road layout:
- Consideration should be given to physical characteristics of the road
such as the horizontal and vertical alignment, camber, width, headroom,
visibility, drainage, and junction design etc;
- Road layouts should be designed to normal highway engineering
- There should be appropriate segregation between pedestrians and road
- Parking and loading/unloading areas on site should be separated; and
- Signing and road marking should be in accordance with public road
- Hazards, restrictions and directions should be clearly identified and
communicated by signs, signals and instructions.
However, for the majority of industrial sites with an existing
infrastructure road layouts cannot be readily amended.
Depending on the size of the site the road layout should preferably be a
looped arrangement, which avoids the need for reversing. In smaller sites, a
cul-de-sac may be acceptable subject to the provision of adequate turning
facilities, which may be in the form of a hammerhead but preferably a
In larger sites, individual access roads should feed to the main
distributor road, which should not provide direct access to individual
factory units. All two-way industrial roads should have a minimum width of
7.3 metres. Curves should be of sufficiently large radius to permit HGVs to
pass without the need for local widening. Only where this is not reasonably
practicable should local widening be provided to cater for the swept path of
HGV vehicles. Individual premises should have an access of minimum width of
6.1 metres. Standard clearance should be provided under all overhead
obstructions. Consideration may have to be given to the provision of
specific abnormal vehicle routes.
Guidance on turning areas and widening on bends for different vehicle
types is provided by the Freight Transport Association publication
`Designing for Deliveries'(1999). Computer programs are also commercially
available to predict the swept paths of large vehicles as they manoeuvre.
When designing a new or improved layout it is helpful to use a
"design" vehicle to achieve efficient and uniform layouts. Most
designs will operate satisfactorily if they can cope with the requirements
of a 15.5 metre long design articulated vehicle and a 10.0 metre long design
rigid vehicle. The design should also consider vertical clearance.
The maximum longitudinal gradient should be 1 in 12 and the minimum
channel gradient should be 1 in 125. A crossfall or camber of 1 in 40
provides adequate drainage. If minimum gradients are not provided, surface
water will tend to pond, which will be hazardous in freezing conditions.
Standing water can also obscure road markings and lead to an increased
likelihood of accidents.
Different types of road pavements are available including a flexible
pavement which utilises bituminous bound materials, a rigid pavement which
utilises pavement quality concrete for the surfacing layers, or a semi-rigid
pavement surfaced with block pavers.
Bituminous surfacing will degrade if exposed to oil products and other
chemical spillages. Areas where spillages are likely such as loading and
unloading areas should utilise a resistant surfacing, such as concrete or
some other appropriate material, with drainage facilities that can intercept
hazardous chemicals. Tar-based as opposed to bitumen-based binders for
surface dressing purposes may also give some degree of oil resistance.
The design of the road pavement will be dependent on the ground
conditions at sub-grade level and the expected traffic flow and vehicle type
during the design life of the pavement.
Advice on the design of Flexible and Rigid pavements can be found in the
DETR Design Manual for Road and Bridges Volume 7, "Pavement Design and
Advice on the design of block pavements can be found in "the
Structural Design of Heavy Duty Pavements for Ports and other
Industries" published by the Precast Concrete Paving and Kerb
Most Highway Authorities produce Design Aids for Industrial and
Commercial Estate Roads, which give guidance on construction of flexible
pavements including the use of block pavers.
Kerbing to roadways should be provided wherever possible to clearly
define the roadway and provide a measure of protection. Dropped kerbs should
be provided at pedestrian crossing points.
Areas that are vulnerable such as pipebridges, overhead gantries etc
should be clearly identified and height restrictions clearly marked.
The standard minimum clearance over every part of the carriageway of a
public road is 16 feet 6 inches (5.03 metres). When the clearance over any
part is less than this, standard warning signs both on and prior to the
structure should be provided. The stated clearance should be at least 75mm
less than the measured height.
Heights of vehicle likely to be encountered are 4.2 metres high (i.e. A
standard container on a suitable flatbed vehicle). Minimum headroom provided
should be 4.65 metres exclusive of any additional space required for
lighting units. Where emergency vehicle access is required, the height of
such vehicles should be confirmed with the relevant emergency service.
Additional clearance will be required if there is a requirement for an
overlay in the future. Changes in gradient may also reduce the effective
headroom for long vehicles.
Consideration should be given to the design of roadways to provide for
road traffic visibility and where this is not possible signs and/or road
markings should be provided, as necessary, to warn drivers of hazards. The
layout of bends and junctions should be such that a driver can stop before
an obstruction in the road taking account of any speed restrictions that are
in place. In addition, there should be adequate visibility at junctions so
those drivers emerging can see and be seen by approaching drivers.
Visibility requirements are related to vehicle speed and stopping
distances. Guidance on visibility requirements can be found in the DETR
Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 6.
There should be adequate lighting of site locations and vehicles at all
times to enable all persons to work safely and in safety.
Adequate lighting should be provided to all areas and especially to those
areas used in darkness hours, or where loading/unloading can be carried out
in poor visibility or diminished lighting conditions. As a minimum, lighting
should be provided for junctions, around plant and buildings, pedestrian
routes and areas where loading/unloading is to be carried out. Guidance for
road lighting can be found in BS 5489 `Road Lighting'.
Signs should either be illuminated for night-time visibility or adverse
weather conditions, or be suitably reflective. Vehicles on site should use
lights/beacons etc in darkness or poor visibility to aid detection by other
Consideration should be given to the difference in illumination levels
between internal and external areas at the points of access to and from
buildings that may hinder detection of vehicle movement.
Roadways, footpaths and hard standings on site should be adequately
drained to prevent the build-up of standing water. Drainage should be by
gullies or drainage channels. All gratings and channel units should be of
appropriate load bearing capacity for the location in which they are set.
Connections for surface run-off from roads, hardstandings etc into drainage
systems may have to include interception facilities in the case of oil or
chemical contamination. Surface run-off will include fire-fighting water.
Safety fences should be provided in accordance with normal highway
practice. Additional safety fencing may be required to protect vulnerable
plant and equipment from vehicle impact.
Road markings should be provided in accordance with normal highway
Bridges and other structures, which have restrictions on load carrying
capacity, should be clearly identified.
Bridges should be designed in accordance with BS 5400 `Steel, Concrete
and Composite Bridges' and Highways Agency standards.
Parking areas on site for employees, visitors and delivery vehicles
should be clearly identified and marked. Staff and visitor car parking areas
should be separate from site access routes wherever possible. Provision for
disabled users should also be made.
Parking bays should be clearly identified by surface markings in order to
avoid random parking arrangements which can introduce additional hazards and
increase the likelihood of a road traffic accident.
Lay-bys or similar should be considered to avoid obstruction of the main
site access roads.
Secure, convenient and adequate parking areas should be provided on-site
for vehicles such that the general roadway is not obstructed. Off-road
pull-in areas that are clearly identified should be provided wherever
Guidance for parking arrangements for cars can be found in the DETR
publication Design bulletin 32, "Residential roads and footpaths".
Guidance for parking arrangements for larger vehicles can be found in the
Freight Transport Association publication "Designing for
Areas for loading and unloading should preferably be separate from
general access areas and loading bay edges should be clearly marked and
protected by barriers. Adequate space for vehicle manoeuvring should be
available in loading/unloading and delivery areas.
If reversing or manoeuvring into position is required consideration
should be given to the provision of physical barriers or the attendance of
another person to supervise the movements. Audible warnings for vehicles
reversing or manoeuvring are appropriate.
Operators in unloading areas should be provided with suitable refuges and
drivers of vehicles should be segregated from dangerous working areas.
Special coatings to road surfaces may be required to provide resistance
against chemical attack from spillages.
Kerbing and other containment measures may also be required to ensure
that spillages do not spread across adjacent areas. In these areas drainage
channels may also be required that drain to collection sumps for reclamation
Guidance on loading bay arrangements can be found in the Freight
Transport Association publication "Designing for Deliveries"
See also the section on Immobilisation of Vehicles below.
Pedestrian walkways and cycleways
Pedestrians and cyclists should be kept away from vehicle routes wherever
possible in order to avoid possible conflict. Separate pedestrian walkways
and cycleways that are clearly identified and separated from each other,
should be provided. Guard rails or fencing should be provided where
appropriate to separate pedestrians and cyclists from vehicles. Pedestrian
walkways should be separated from cycleways by surface markings. Additional
protection should be provided at exits and entrances from buildings.
Road crossing points for pedestrians and cyclists should be clearly
identified and consideration should be given to clearly identifying
crossings by traffic lights, zebra markings or other such systems. Zebra
crossings can also be incorporated into layout design. Traffic lights and
zebra crossings need only be considered when traffic flows do not provide
adequate gaps in the traffic for pedestrians and cyclists to cross. Advice
on the provision of zebra crossings can be found in the DETR Design Manual
for Roads and Bridges, Volume 8.
The positioning of pedestrian and cyclist crossing points should be
considered carefully to ensure that all users have adequate visibility.
It may be necessary to erect guard rails to stop pedestrians crossing on
corners where visibility is reduced. Guardrails should be set back a minimum
of 500mm from the kerb and be designed in accordance with BS 3049
`Pedestrian Guard Rails'.
Where road crossings are wide, it is appropriate to provide central
refuges to allow the roadway to be crossed safely in two or more movements.
In some circumstances footbridges or subways may be considered necessary
The movement of pedestrians and cyclists onto/off and around site should
be considered, not only for routine access between plants during the working
day but also for mass movements which may occur at the beginning or end of
the working day, during shift changeovers, at lunchtime and under emergency
The interaction between pedestrians, cycle traffic and vehicles should be
Rail deliveries are generally only applicable for the bulk transfer of
raw materials or product onto or off site and are specially designed for
that purpose. Special consideration needs to be given to train movements
onto and off-site in co-ordination with the relevant train operating
Whilst on-site, train movements may restrict normal traffic flow
arrangements, either whilst moving into location or whilst being loaded.
Special consideration should be given to the segregation of rail traffic
from other areas and the provision of suitable barriers and warning signals
for locations where rail tracks cross pedestrian footpaths or roadways.
HS(G) 153/6 gives standards for level crossings.
The legislative requirements for rail traffic are outside the scope of
Areas of potential road and rail conflict should be given special
consideration to ensure that suitable signing and barriers, if required, are
provided between road and rail.
General principles - site traffic control
Site traffic control relies upon a combination of physical features such
as the selection of appropriate vehicles to carry out the necessary work in
the conditions that prevail, road layout and marking, signs and signals and
other considerations such as systems, procedures and training.
Site traffic control should typically consider the following types of
- Road traffic - commercial delivery vehicles (including road tankers,
wagons, couriers etc), internal vehicles (including fork lift trucks,
mobile cranes, bicycles), visitor and staff cars/motorbikes/bicycles
- Rail traffic - some sites may receive and dispatch goods by rail. Rail
routes may cross site access roads for vehicles or affect pedestrian
- Pedestrian traffic- site employees, contractors and visitors either on
their way to or from their normal place of work at the beginning or end
of the working day, or as part of their work during the day.
Road users, both drivers and pedestrians, should know exactly what is
expected of them. This can be achieved by establishing a Road Hierarchy,
which is used to provide a consistent standard for each road type in terms
of design standard, signing, access constraints etc.
Traffic routes should be determined and can be classified as either
access/through routes to site for deliveries, shuttle routes between
buildings for on-site activities, or emergency access routes for fire
engines, ambulances etc. Careful planning and consideration of site traffic
control issues can result in a reduction in the likelihood of collisions
between vehicles and/or equipment.
Incompatible types of traffic should be segregated as far as possible to
avoid potential interactions between chemicals in the event of a collision
between road traffic vehicles or between road traffic and stationary storage
facilities or pipelines carrying chemicals.
This guidance is not concerned with traffic control within buildings such
as warehouses or process plant areas where special consideration needs to be
given to the potential interaction between fork lift trucks and/or
Consideration should be given both to the hazards introduced by the loads
being conveyed and the mode of transport used. Chemical hazards are
considered elsewhere. Consideration should be given to the physical size,
the presence of ignition sources and hot surfaces, the presence of flammable
fuels, the possibility of impact caused by size or speed, and
The purpose of the presence of vehicles on site should be assessed. Some
vehicles may be used simply for access and the transportation of personnel
and others for the delivery of materials (solids, liquids and gases) and
equipment to/from site.
Some of the items that may be transported are given below:
- Bulk deliveries of liquids or solids;
- Small packages, IBCs, containers, drums etc of solids or liquids;
- Gas cylinders;
- Mechanical equipment;
- Letters, parcels etc; and
Examples of the different types of vehicle which may be present on site
on either a routine or an irregular basis are given below and consideration
should be given for any possible implications due to variation in height,
length, width, weight etc.
- Bulk delivery tankers;
- Wagons, trucks, lorries and vans;
- Mobile cranes;
- Cyclists; and
- Fork lift trucks.
Each type of vehicle has different characteristics and introduces
different potential problems to site.
An assessment of the risks of transportation of each material/load on
site should be carried out, an estimate of the frequency of each delivery
made and the access route carefully defined in relation to the hazards
In order to assist in controlling traffic flow on-site a number of
additional measures can be incorporated in order to manage traffic flow in
congested areas and reduce speeds on-site. Such techniques include the
Traffic lights can be used to control flow at busy junctions, in narrow
locations and at entry and exit locations to the site;
One-way systems should be considered where necessary to reduce the
likelihood of collision, reduce congestion and improve traffic movement;
Roundabouts may smooth traffic flow and avoid road traffic turning
directly in front of on-coming traffic;
Traffic calming devices such as speed humps, rumble strips, width
restrictors etc can be incorporated into road design to encourage a
reduction in speed. (Such devices are not appropriate in areas where fork
lift trucks routinely operate since they introduce additional hazards for
this type of vehicle). The design of such features must be appropriate for
the type of traffic envisaged;
Physical barriers should be incorporated into road design to protect
vulnerable and hazardous installations such as storage tanks, pipework
systems, buildings or pedestrian access areas;
Signs and road markings; and,
Site speed limits.
Physical barriers should be installed, where necessary, adjacent to
roadways to reduce the potential impact of road traffic accidents.
Consideration should be given to the protection of vulnerable pipework,
storage tanks and other plant and equipment. Protective barriers should be
designed to BS 7669 `Vehicle Restraint Systems'.
When considering the installation of barriers it is important that
visibility is not reduced below acceptable standards for road users and
Signs and signals should be used on-site to clearly identify hazards,
restrictions and to give directions. Chemical hazards should be identified
along with height, width and loading restrictions for pipebridges, arches,
Road markings should be used to designate traffic routes, non-parking
areas, give way areas etc in accordance with standard road markings. All
signs should be unambiguous, conspicuous, clean and unobstructed. Traffic
Signs and road markings wherever possible should comply with the HMSO
publication 'Traffic Signs Manual Chapters 1 to 8'.
Hazard warning signs should comply with the Health & Safety (Signs
and Signals) Regulations 1996.
Speed sensors and flashing warning signs can be used to improve
communication of information to traffic on-site.
A site plan should be available at the site entrance, the site speed
limit should be clearly identified and adequate signposting to assist
delivery vehicles unfamiliar with the site layout should be provided to
Speed limits should be imposed on larger industrial sites to limit the
possibility and severity of accidents. Suitable site speed limits should be
determined based upon consideration of what is a safe speed on-site
accounting for the type of vehicles using the roadway and its layout, bends,
visibility at junctions etc. Limits of 10, 15 or 20 mph may be appropriate
depending on the vehicles used, site layout and hazards. This should then be
effectively communicated to drivers of all vehicles who require access to
the site, sign-posted at appropriate intervals and locations to remind
drivers of the speed limit and enforced. To be effective the limits should
be enforced by site security and supervisors. Speed limits should be
included in the Site Rules with appropriate disciplinary action taken as
General principles - immobilisation of vehicles
Systems to prevent movement of tankers during loading and off-loading
procedures which involve the bulk transfer of materials either from or to
storage facilities can either be built into the design of the road tanker or
be site-based. These facilities generally involve some form of interlock
system and can be a combination of hard-wire interlock systems and software
based interlock systems. Other systems that involve devices to shut off flow
in the event of high flow conditions being detected can also be used. Such
transfers normally involve the use of flexible pipework connections either
supplied by the road tanker haulage company or by the site. (For the issues
associated with the maintenance, inspection and testing of flexible pipework
connections see Design Codes - Pipework.
Immobilisation of vehicles during such operations is important to reduce the
risk of leaks/spillages of materials during transfer, which could lead to
the instigation of a major accident on site.
A basic requirement for any tanker loading/off-loading area is that the
ground in the location should be level or gently sloping (a slope for
drainage of maximum 1:30 should be considered). Discharging of road tankers
on sloping areas should be avoided since it may not be possible to contain
potential spillages and there is an increased likelihood of vehicle
For other vehicle deliveries on-site, involving delivery of bulk solids
by tipper lorry or small packages, e.g. pallets or drums, loading and
off-loading is generally carried out without any specific interlock systems
in place. Cordoning off an area can be considered in addition to standard
provisions such as engaging the handbrake and removing vehicle keys.
As a general rule the keys for vehicles such as Fork Lift Trucks, Mobile
Cranes and other site based vehicles should not be left in the ignition
systems as a precaution against unauthorised use, theft, damage or misuse.
Vehicle based systems
Systems exist on tankers which interlock the vehicle braking system with
the removal of the delivery hose. The vehicle braking system can only be
released when the delivery hose is re-stowed. Such systems are designed to
ensure that the tanker can not be driven away with flexible pipework still
connected and chemicals being transferred. There is a risk of accident if
such a system can be defeated by the use of an independent delivery hose
arrangement in preference to the delivery hose stowed on the vehicle.
Another system involves an interlock between the vehicle braking system
and a locked cap at the delivery or offloading point. Removing the delivery
cap automatically results in the road tanker braking system being applied
and it can only then be released when the delivery cap is refitted.
A number of variations of the above systems can be considered whereby the
vehicle braking system is applied for the duration of the transfer period
because of one or more other components of the road tanker system being used
and hence interlocked with the braking system.
Reliance on road vehicle based systems however assumes that the interlock
systems are checked and maintained by the road haulage companies and are
therefore not directly under the control of the site operator. As a result
it is usual for additional precautions to be taken either instead of or in
addition to those described above.
Site based immobilisation systems
A variety of different site based schemes can be considered for
immobilising vehicles and ensuring safe operations during loading/unloading
In the simplest form, chocks can be positioned beneath the wheels of the
road tanker in order to immobilise the vehicle. The chocks will provide some
form of resistance against road tanker movement in the event of any attempt
to move the vehicle.. There is the possibility that the chocks may not be
removed when the loading operation has been completed leading to problems.
Removing and retaining the road tanker vehicle keys in a control room or
remote location can also be considered.
However, such systems rely upon manual intervention and may not therefore
be relied upon.
Other systems for dedicated loading/unloading facilities may involve
automatic barriers that should be lowered before the offloading/loading
valves can be operated. These barriers can be automatically interlocked
through a computer system (DCS or similar) to the operation of the loading
valves or interlocked via a physical system (key interlock system or
similar). Motion detectors attached to the vehicle can also be used.
The advantage of these systems is that they are owned and maintained by
the site and are therefore directly under the control of the site.
Many other such systems exist, for example all loading valves in a
multi-purpose loading bay facility can be interlocked such that only one
valve can be opened at a time, etc.
Excess flow valves can be installed in unloading pipework to
automatically trip valves shut in the event of an open end on a discharge
flexible due to a tanker moving away. Such valves work on the basis that the
flowrate should increase if the connection is broken and there will be a
reduced pressure drop along the delivery pipework system. Other automatic
control systems based on flow detection devices can also be considered.
Similar systems can be considered for filling railcars.
A number of on-going measures should be considered when considering roads
and traffic control.
Adequate facilities and materials should be readily available on-site for
clean-up of spillages. Any materials used should not directly affect the
Clean-up operations may extend to the emptying of separators, catch pits
and emergency sumps.
Roads, footpaths and surface drainage on site should be adequately
maintained. Paved surfaces should be free from pot-holes and other surface
defects which may affect vehicles and pedestrians.
Adequate spreading equipment and a supply of grit/sand etc should be
readily available on-site for snow and icy conditions.
Systems and procedures
Systems and procedures should be in place to ensure that site traffic
control issues are adequately considered and incorporated into site safety
management systems. Consideration should be given to segregating
incompatible traffic loads and organising deliveries outside busy periods.
Systems should be in place for assessing the transport requirements,
vehicles and routes to be used. Consideration should be given to the
necessity for transport, and to a vehicle selection system for the site that
considers the design, maintenance and operability of the vehicles to be
Operating and maintenance procedures for all vehicles on site should be
developed. Maintenance policies should also be developed for roadways,
footpaths and the infrastructure items such as structures, drainage,
lighting, barriers, signs and markings.
Procedures for accidents to be reported and investigated should exist.
Lessons for improving traffic flow and reducing accidents should be learnt.
Normal requirements of Road Traffic Acts should be adhered to on-site.
This includes seatbelt and alcohol policies.
Procedures should exist to deal with the increased hazards caused by
adverse weather conditions - flooding, snow and ice etc. Procedures for
gritting/salting of roadways and pedestrian routes and for snow clearance
should be available. Procedures for routine clearance of debris from
roadways and road cleaning along with adequate resources should be
Standard access routes should be defined and prepared. In the event of
site roadworks, temporary construction work or other reasons why areas may
be temporarily out of use (cranes, rail delivery etc) a system needs to be
in place to ensure that alternative routes are developed, temporary access
signs installed etc. Under all circumstances access for emergency vehicles
to all facilities should be maintained. Advice on safety measures during
roadworks can be found in the DETR publication - Chapter 8 of the Traffic
Signs Manual `Traffic Safety Measures and Signs for Road Works and Temporary
For those sites where offloading/loading can result in temporary road
closures being necessary, care should be taken that a combination of more
than one road closure at a time does not lead to areas of site becoming
temporarily inaccessible for pedestrians, or emergency vehicles.
Visitors to site require special consideration - see also Technical
Measures document - Site Security.
Visitors should be the subject of suitable reception and security checks
prior to access to site. Visitor vehicles should be separated from site
operations as far as possible. Prior to access to site visitors should be
made aware of vehicle restrictions and safety considerations. Pedestrian
visitors should be accompanied whilst on-site in operational areas.
Drivers of vehicles arriving on site should report to site security prior
to entry for authorisation, examination of delivery documentation etc. Site
security personnel should make visitors and delivery drivers aware at this
stage of site traffic procedures and any temporary amendments to access
routes that are in force. Site security personnel should monitor and control
access of vehicles to site to avoid traffic congestion on-site and in the
vicinity of the site entry/exits. This is especially important at times of
mass migration of personnel onto or off site. Consideration should be given
to staggering deliveries of chemicals to site to avoid clashes and to avoid
busy entry and exit times. Special consideration should be given to drivers
who may be unfamiliar with the site layout and those for whom English is not
their first language and may not understand the instructions, warnings and
hazards on site.
Security personnel, and others responsible for plant/process areas,
should enforce parking regulations on site to avoid hazards caused by
Site based vehicles should be routinely inspected and maintained to set
standards and procedures to ensure roadworthiness and the effectiveness of
safety systems such as brakes, lights, horns, indicators etc. Daily pre-use
checks for site based vehicles such as fork lift trucks should be
considered. There should be a clear procedure for reporting and correcting
defects in vehicles and maintenance records should be available for
Systems should be in place to ensure effective communication between
gatehouse and operators accepting delivery on-site to warn of the arrival of
CCTV systems can be considered as a mechanism for managing and
controlling road traffic systems.
Training is an essential component of site traffic control and should
cover not only those engaged in driving and operating vehicles on site, but
also pedestrians and those responsible for monitoring and enforcing traffic
control on site. The latter is usually the responsibility of the site
security/gatehouse who initially control access to the site.
Training of site personnel engaged in driving site based vehicles is an
essential part of the prevention of site traffic accidents. Site based
personnel should be made aware of the hazards of driving fork lift trucks
for example and should be authorised or, where necessary, licensed to drive
and be routinely checked for competence . Unauthorised personnel should not
be allowed to drive vehicles on site.
Training for all site staff should cover technical issues such as -
vehicle and equipment operation, hazard awareness, speed limits, parking and
loading requirements, safe operating practices etc, site layout, traffic
routes, reporting procedures etc.
The competence of third party delivery drivers on site can be assessed by
checking the health & safety standards of contractors and their
sub-contractors in relation to their selection and training procedures,
maintenance of vehicles, use of regular or ad-hoc drivers, accident and
safety records etc. The company may undertake spot checks and inspections of
delivery vehicles to ensure suitable road safety standards, driver
competence and vehicle maintenance is being carried out.
HSE Guidance Note GS9(R) - Road Transport in Factories and Similar
Workplaces - Revised January 1992 provided guidance for the movement of
vehicles at workplaces and into and out of industrial premises.
HSE Guidance Note HS(G)6 - Lift Trucks discusses the special problems
associated with the use of fork lift trucks for mechanical handling purposes
The Workplace (Health & Safety at Work) Regulations 1992 place
requirements on employers concerning the organisation of traffic routes.
Regulation 17 discusses the organisation of traffic routes and requires
that "all routes shall be suitably indicated";
Regulation 12 requires the construction and maintenance of fit for
Regulation 8 requires the provision of suitable and sufficient lighting.
The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1992 relate to
employers responsibilities for vehicles.
The Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions Regulations 1994 set
requirements to be met in terms of visual communications for safe internal
Further Reading Material
Lees, F.P., 'Loss Prevention in the Process
Industries: Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control', Volumes
1-3, Second Edition, 1996, Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-1547-8.
Case Studies Illustrating the Importance of Roadways / Site Traffic
Control / Immobilisation of Vehicles
Railcar Shunt Causes Propylene Release