What you need to do
The law says that all demolition, dismantling and structural alteration must be carefully planned and carried out in a way that prevents danger by practitioners with the relevant skills, knowledge and experience. Key issues are:
- Falls from height
- Injury from falling materials
- Uncontrolled collapse
- Risks from connected services
- Traffic management
- Hazardous materials
- Noise and vibration
- Fire (local link)
- Worker involvement
What you need to know
A systematic approach to demolition projects is a team effort between many people, who all have responsibilities:
- Clients must appoint dutyholders who have the relevant skills, knowledge and experience and where organisations, the organisational capability, and are adequately resourced.
- Clients, with the help of the principal designer must provide those who need it (eg, designers, contractors) with pre-construction information that can reasonably be obtained. A range of surveys and reports will be needed - for example, to check for presence of asbestos; structural stability of site and nearby structures; the location of above and below ground live services in the work area; etc. These should be done before work begins and not be left for the principal contractor to organise once the demolition work has started.
- Principal designers must plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety issues in the pre-construction phase (ie before demolition starts) to give principal contractors as much information as possible to allow the principal contractor to keep people (site workers and the public) as far as possible from the risks.
- Principal contractors must plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety issues during the demolition work.
- Site managers must ensure workers are supervised and are following safe working practice.
- Sub-contractors and site workers must follow the instructions and plans given to them by those in charge of the work and ensure that their colleagues do too.
Falls from height
During demolition and dismantling, workers can be injured falling from edges, through openings, fragile surfaces and partially demolished floors.
Dutyholders have a responsibility to assess, eliminate and control the risks of falls from height. Find out more about falls from height.
Injury from falling materials
Workers and passers-by can be injured by the premature and uncontrolled collapse of structures, and by flying debris.
A safe system of work is one that keeps people as far as possible from the risks. This may include:
- establishing exclusion zones and hard-hat areas, clearly marked and with barriers or hoardings if necessary
- covered walkways
- using high-reach machines
- reinforcing machine cabs so that drivers are not injured
- training and supervising site workers
The structural survey should consider:
- the age of the structure
- its previous use
- the type of construction
- nearby buildings or structures
- the weight of removed material or machinery on floors above ground level
The method statement for the demolition should identify the sequence required to prevent accidental collapse of the structure.
Risks from connected services
Gas, electricity, water and telecommunications services need to be isolated or disconnected before demolition work begins. If this is not possible, pipes and cables must be labelled clearly, to make sure they are not disturbed.
Effective traffic management systems are essential on site, to avoid putting workers at risk of being hit by vehicles turning, slewing, or reversing. Where possible, vision aids and zero tail swing machines should be used. Find out more about traffic management
Hazardous materials that should to be considered include dust, asbestos and respirable crystalline silica (RCS).There may also be material or contamination on site that has not been cleared, for example:
- acids from industrial processes
- flammable liquids
- unidentified drums
- microbiological hazards (especially in old hospital buildings).
Find out more about the control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH)
Noise and vibration
Frequent exposure to loud noise can permanently damage a persons hearing. Noise can also create a safety risk if it makes it difficult for workers to communicate effectively or stops them hearing warning signals.
Vibrating hand tools used in demolition can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS).Workers exposure to vibration must be managed and reduced as far as possible.
Fire is a risk where hot work (using any tools that generate spark, flame or heat) is being done. During structural alteration, the fire plan must be kept up to date as the escape routes and fire points may alter. There must be an effective way to raise the alarm.
Everyone involved must to know what precautions are to be taken on site. Workplaces where employees are involved in taking decisions about health and safety are safer and healthier. Your employees are often the best people to understand the risks in their workplace. Find out more about involving your workers in health and safety.