Mental health conditions, work and the workplace
This guidance talks generally about work-related stress, but if stress is prolonged it can lead to both physical and mental ill health, including anxiety and depression.
There is separate guidance on work-related stress and how to manage it
Mental health and work
One in four people in the UK will have a mental health problem at some point. While mental health problems are common, most are mild, tend to be short-term and are normally successfully treated, with medication, by a GP.
Mental health is about how we think, feel and behave. Anxiety and depression are the most common mental health problems. They are often a reaction to a difficult life event, such as bereavement, but can also be caused by work-related issues.
Work can also aggravate pre-existing conditions, and problems at work can bring on symptoms or make their effects worse.
Whether work is causing the health issue or aggravating it, employers have a legal responsibility to help their employees. Like any other safety or health hazard at work, work-related mental health issues must be assessed to measure the levels of risk to staff. Where a risk is identified, steps must be taken to remove it or reduce it as far as reasonably practicable.
Some employees will have a pre-existing physical or mental health condition when recruited or may develop one caused by factors that are not work-related factors.
Employers may have further legal requirements to make reasonable adjustments under equalities legislation. Guidance on employing disabled people and people with health conditions on GOV.UK. There is guidance on employing people and workplace adjustments (on equalityhumanrights.com) from the Equality and Human Rights Commission.
HSE has also developed principles to help employers to support disabled workers and workers with long-term health conditions in work.
Separate guidance for managers and workers
There is advice on mental health in work for:
How employers can support people with mental health conditions
In 2017, the government commissioned Lord Stevenson and Paul Farmer (Chief Executive of Mind) to independently review the role employers can play to better support individuals with mental health conditions in the workplace.
The 'Thriving at Work' report sets out a framework of actions – called 'Core Standards' – that the reviewers recommend employers of all sizes can and should put in place:
- Produce, implement and communicate a mental health at work plan that promotes good mental health of all employees and outlines the support available for those who may need it
- Develop mental health awareness among employees by making information, tools and support accessible
- Encourage open conversations about mental health and the support available when employees are struggling, during the recruitment process and at regular intervals throughout employment, offer appropriate workplace adjustments to employees who require them
- Provide employees with good working conditions and ensure they have a healthy work life balance and opportunities for development
- Promote effective people management to ensure all employees have a regular conversation about their health and well-being with their line manager, supervisor or organisational leader and train and support line managers and supervisors in effective management practices
- Routinely monitor employee mental health and wellbeing by understanding available data, talking to employees, and understanding risk factors
The core standards have been designed to help employers improve the mental health of their workplace and enable individuals with mental health conditions to thrive.
By taking action on work-related stress, either through using the HSE Management Standards or an equivalent approach, employers will meet parts of the core standards framework, as they will:
- form part of a mental health at work plan
- promote communications and open conversations, by raising awareness and reducing stigma
- provide a mechanism for monitoring actions and outcomes
How mental ill health and work-related stress can go together
Work-related stress and mental health problems often go together and the symptoms can be very similar.
Work-related stress can aggravate an existing mental health problem, making it more difficult to control. If work-related stress reaches a point where it has triggered an existing mental health problem, it becomes hard to separate one from the other.
Common mental health problems and stress can exist independently – people can experience work-related stress and physical changes such as high blood pressure, without having anxiety, depression or other mental health problems. They can also have anxiety and depression without experiencing stress. The key differences between them are their cause(s) and the way(s) they are treated.
Stress is a reaction to events or experiences in someone's home life, work life or a combination of both. Common mental health problems can have a single cause outside work, for example bereavement, divorce, postnatal depression, a medical condition or a family history of the problem. But people can have these sorts of problems with no obvious causes.
As an employer, you can help manage and prevent stress by improving conditions at work. But you also have a role in making adjustments and helping someone manage a mental health problem at work.
Mental ill health, stress and the Management Standards
Although stress can lead to physical and mental health conditions and can aggravate existing conditions, the good news is that it can be tackled. By taking action to remove or reduce stressors, you can prevent people becoming ill and avoid those with an existing condition becoming less able to control their illness.
HSE's Management Standards approach ;to tackling work-related stress establishes a framework to help employers tackle work-related stress and, as a result, also reduce the incidence and negative impact of mental ill health.
The Management Standards approach can help employers put processes in place for properly managing work-related stress. By covering six key areas of work design you will be taking steps that will minimise pressure, manage potential stressors and limit the negative impact that the work could have on your employees.