RR4 - Dermal exposure resulting from liquid contamination
Research into the field of dermal exposure to chemicals originated from the agricultural industry and was directed primarily towards exposure to pesticides (Durham and Wolff 1962). Developments in measurement methods of dermal exposure have been slow when compared to the developments for exposure to particulate matter, gasses and vapours (Kromhout H & Vermeulen R. 2001).
The USA, Environmental Protection Agency (Mulhausen and Damiano 1998) and the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) (European Chemicals Bureau 1996) have developed models that are used in pesticide regulation to predict the amounts of pesticide products that deposit on the surfaces of work clothing and exposed skin.
Measurement of dermal exposure and/or chemical uptake through the skin is a difficult process, involving the use of either artificial skin, wipe sampling methods from field studies or biological monitoring (ECETOC 1994). Such techniques are time consuming, expensive and the results are irreproducible.
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