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PN0935 Estimating Pesticide Residues on Invertebrates Eaten by Birds and Mammals

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Poster Presented at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Annual Meeting, Baltimore, 11/2001

Executive Summary

Residues on Plants as Surrogates for Insects

Assessment of pesticide risks to birds and mammals from dietary exposure requires estimates of the concentration of pesticides in their food.

Current approaches rely upon estimates of the residues likely to be found in various types of plant matter immediately after pesticide application. These estimates were originally derived by Hoerger and Kenaga (1972). They collated data from field studies with a number of pesticides and derived estimates of the Residue per Unit Dose (RUD), which entered general use in the form of the Kenaga nomogram. Hoerger and Kenaga's RUDs were revised by Fletcher et al (1994), based on a much larger dataset. Fletcher's RUDs were adopted in the United States of America (USA) and are being considered for adoption in the EU. Neither of these studies included any data on residues in insects. Kenaga (1973) suggested that residues deposited on insects might be equivalent to those on plant parts of similar surface area to volume ratio. This suggestion was adopted as standard practice in North America and Europe (see Table 1 of poster). Until recently, the assumptions it implies were untested.

Measured residues on insects

In recent years, residues on insects have been measured in a number of field studies. In principle, these should provide a better basis for RUDs for insects. Three recent studies (by Fischer & Bowers, Brewer et al. and Luttik) have investigated this approach. This poster summarises a more detailed analysis with a larger dataset that includes more types of pesticides.

Further Information

PN0920:UK Case Studies on Quantitative Risk Assessment (pdf, 39 pages)

Data Requirements Handbook

Other Ecotoxicology and Environmental Fate Guidance

Updated 2016-12-21-->