Bird and Mammal Reference List
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Key studies to consult when carrying out a bird and mammal risk assessment.
Over the past few years PSD (now CRD) / Defra has sponsored research on the exposure of birds and mammals to pesticides. Research has also been sponsored on the effects of pesticides on birds and mammals to solid formulations. This work has been published in a range of publications. However, with the adoption of the SANCO guidance document to assess the risk to birds and mammals (see SANCO 4145/EEC) and the EFSA Guidance document for Risk Assessment for Birds and Mammals (EFSA-Q-2009-00223) it was considered appropriate that these publications should be made available in one central place. It is hoped that the information in these papers will aid applicants and interested parties in carrying out the risk assessment
Listed below are the key publications, a hyperlink to the publication itself, as well as a short summary highlighting key issues covered in the publication and how it may help the risk assessor.
Buxton J.M., Crocker D.R., and Pascual J.A. (1998). Birds and farming: information for risk assessment. 1998 Update Contract PN0919 Milestone Report FERA Project No M37:
This publication provides information on birds that occur in the agricultural environment in the UK and in particular on their diet and breeding period. This publication can be used to help refine ‘the proportion of food types in the diet’ as outlined in SANCO 4145/EEC.
Crocker D.R. and Irving P.V. (1999). Milestone report 02/01 Variation of bird numbers on arable crops. Contract PN0915 – Improving estimates of exposure to pesticides in arable crops.
This publication highlights the type of work required to determine appropriate focal species, it also proposes several focal species for certain crops.
Crocker, D.R., Irving P.V., Watola, G., Tarrant, KA., Hart, A.D.M. (1998). Contract PN0903: Improving the assessment of pesticide risks to birds in orchards. Objective 2: Relative importance of pesticides and other factors influencing birds in orchards. FERA Report No EH18/01. /01:
This paper summarises the influence of pesticide use, other aspects of husbandry and environmental factors on bird populations in orchards
Crocker, D.R., Prosser, P., Tarrant, K.A., Irving P.V., Watola, G., Chandler-Morris, S., Hart J. and Hart A.D.M. (1998). Contract PN0903: Improving the assessment of pesticide risks to birds in Orchards Objective 1: Use of radio-telemetry to monitor birds’ use of orchards FERA Report No. EH18/02.
This report provides information on the behaviour of birds in UK orchards. In particular it provides useful information on the time that birds spend in orchards and hence can be used to refine ‘the proportion of food obtained from the treated area' as outlined in SANCO 4145/EEC.
Crocker D.R., Hart A.D.M., Gurney J. and McCoy C (2002). Project PN0908: Methods for estimating daily food intake of wild birds and mammals: Final report FERA.
This publication was used to derive the ‘food intake rates’ (FIR) as defined by SANCO 4145/EEC. This document can be used to determine more appropriate FIRs.
Finch E., Payne, M, Crocker, J (2006). Bird and mammal risk assessment: refining the proportion of diet obtained in the treated crop area (pt) through the use of radio tracking data. Paper to Advisory Committee on Pesticides SC 11419.
This paper demonstrates how the proportion of diet obtained in treated areas by birds can be estimated from the recorded radio tracked ‘active time’ data and discusses the most appropriate percentile value for regulatory use in the current deterministic non-target bird risk assessment for pesticides.
Fryday S. L., Chandler-Morris S. A., Tarrant K. A., and Hart A. D. M. (1999). Contract PN0914: Validation of methods for testing the avoidance of treated seeds by birds. Final report April 1999 FERA Report No. FL6400.
This report, together with Fryday et al (2001), provides useful information on the design of avoidance studies. These two reports should be consulted if an applicant is considering carrying out an avoidance study, or is assessing the risk to birds or mammals from a solid formulation.
Fryday S. L., Chandler-Morris S. A., and Hart A. D. M. (2001). Contract PN0909: Robust tests for the acceptance of bait and treated seed by birds November 2001 FERA Report No. FL3900.
This report, together with Fryday et al (1998), provides useful information on the design of avoidance studies. These two reports should be consulted if an applicant is considering carrying out an avoidance study, or is assessing the risk to birds or mammals from a solid formulation.
Gurney J.E., Perrett J., Crocker D.R. and Pascual J.A. (1998). Mammals and farming: information for risk assessment. 1998 Update Contract PN0919 Milestone Report FERA Project No M37.
This publication provides information on mammals that occur in the UK agricultural environment and in particular on their diet. This publication can be used to help refine ‘the proportion of food types in the diet’ as outlined in SANCO 4145/EEC.
Hart A.D.M. (1999). Exposure of non-target organisms to pesticides in gardens. Final report of PN0916.
This report provides information on the occurrence and subsequent use of non-target organisms in the home garden and should be consulted when the risk from a home garden pesticide is assessed as it highlights key species as well as issues associated with residues.
Hart A.D.M. (2002). Risk to birds and mammals from solid formulations. Report of PN0922.
This is the final report from a suite of projects designed to determine the risk to birds and mammals from solid formulations. This paper should be considered if the risk to birds and/or mammals from either a pellet or a granule is being assessed. The report also includes useful information regarding the residue in earthworms.
Hart A.D.M. (2002). Project PN0920: UK Case studies on quantitative risk assessment: Final report. 1.
This project evaluated the feasibility of carrying probabilistic risk assessment under 91/414/EEC. The report summarises several case studies and concludes that probabilistic risk assessment can be accommodated within the EU regulations and could provide a significantly better basis for decision-making, if they are used appropriately.
Pascual J., Crocker D.R. and Hart A. D. M. (1998). Project PN0919: Improving estimates of the exposure of non-target wildlife to pesticides in arable crops – a review of existing data - Discussion document for meeting on 15 May 1998. Contract PN0910/PN0919 Milestone report.
This report presents information on the occurrence of birds and mammals on arable fields in the UK. This report can be used to determine appropriate focal species for refined risk assessment.
Prosser P. (1999). Project PN0907: Potential exposure of birds to treated seed. Final milestone report FERA. 2.
This report provides useful information on what seed is consumed by what bird, it should be consulted when the risk to birds from a seed treatment is being assessed.