This study has looked at the hazards that are associated with soft ground tunnelling in urban areas. It has considered all of the types of construction methods that are used in soft ground tunnelling. Data on tunnel incidents has been taken from the published literature and from personal data bases and other sources of information. This has been used to understand and describe the range of possible primary and underlying causes of failures. Methodologies for the mitigation of risks are examined and conclusions drawn for the effective management of future urban tunnelling projects.
The authors would like to express their thanks to colleagues in UK and abroad for their assistance in compiling the data used in this report.
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