Aims to identify the risks associated with the pushing and pulling of heavy loads, to provide practical guidance for future updates to HSE's guidance on the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (L23; HSE, 1998). The outcomes of this research were: a pushing and pulling assessment checklist to be included in HSE's revised guidance; and guidance on the selection of trolleys and wheeled equipment. Furthermore, the L23 pushing and pulling risk filter guidelines for starting and stopping a load were reduced to 20 kg for men and 15 kg for women assuming that the distance of the push or pull is no more than about 20 metres.
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