Many waste management activities bring potential exposure to a wide range of respiratory or breathing hazards. Such activities include handling waste and recyclables during collection and sorting activities (eg at kerbside and material recycling facilities), processing activities (eg composting, paper, plastic, metal and waste electronic and electrical equipment recycling) and, ultimately, disposal (eg landfill).
Airborne dust and fumes from waste material may contain various metal, wood, plastics and chemical pollutants. Micro-organisms may grow quickly on organic wastes such as vegetation and food waste, and become airborne (called bio-aerosols) when waste is collected and handled, and especially when composted.
Dust and fumes can cause long-term health problems such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
To minimise dust, fumes and bio-aerosols entering the lungs, a suitable and sufficient assessment should be carried out to eliminate or reduce the risk of exposure (eg through identification and adoption of suitable control measures). The assessment should be reviewed at appropriate intervals or if there are changes to the process that indicate the risk of exposure will change.
Control measures adopted might include: