Supervision is an important Performance Influencing Factor that is believed to have contributed to a number of major accidents (Texas City, 2005; Texaco Milford Haven, 1994; Hickson and Welch, 1992). Problems can emerge because of poorly defined responsibilities, heavy workloads, inadequate resources, or as a result of removing supervisory roles altogether.
Many supervisors are given a vital role during emergency response, yet are often poorly trained in these key responsibilities. Supervisors may also have an important part to play in managing contractors and/or issuing permits-to-work (the public enquiry into the Piper Alpha explosion in 1998 concluded that the operating company failed to ensure that a key supervisor was sufficiently competent in the operation of the PTW system).
Other key supervisory functions include planning and allocating work, making decisions, monitoring performance and compliance, providing leadership and building teamwork, and ensuring workforce involvement.
Crucially, supervisors can have a significant, positive impact on a range of local performance influencing factors (compliance with procedures, training and competence, safety-critical communication, staffing levels and workload, shift work and fatigue, organisational culture etc.)
The traditional ‘supervisor’ represents a crucial, final link between planning a job and its execution. However, it is worth remembering that supervisory functions may be shared between a number of front-line ‘shift managers’, or between individual employees in a self-managed team (SMT). While the switch to SMTs is often associated with significant commercial benefits and improvements to job satisfaction, it is also argued that the effectiveness of supervision - especially in the context of safety - is reduced. However, this need not be the case: health and safety performance can be assured provided the team has the necessary focus, competence and resources to deliver a set of clearly-defined supervisory functions. Research also suggests that the introduction of SMTs can foster active employee involvement.
Whatever the management structure, supervision remains a critical organisational factor and its importance should be duly and proportionately reflected within an organisation’s safety management system.