This SIM advises inspectors about the safety requirements for front end (or fore end) loaders fitted on agricultural tractors and a potential hazard when they are fitted to tractors with programmable hydraulic functions.
The control systems on certain makes/models of tractor may permit the loader to function without the operator of the tractor at the controls. This could allow the operator or other people to enter an area to the front or side of the tractor where they could be at risk of being struck by the loader.
FOD inspectors who encounter deficiencies in the implementation of the control measures should consider taking the appropriate action detailed in this guidance.
Front end loaders are commonplace in agriculture. They consist of detachable lifting arms for materials handling designed to be mounted on a frame secured to the front of a tractor. A variety of attachments can be mounted on the loader to enable it to handle a range of goods or materials such as pallets, bales, grain, manure etc. The loader is powered by the tractor’s own hydraulic system. Operation of the loader and attachment is controlled by the tractor driver seated at the normal driving position.
Some agricultural tractors feature a programmable hydraulic system - commonly called a headland sequencing function - normally used to allow the tractor to carry out several hydraulic operations when moving complex machines in and out of work positions.
The sector is aware that front end loaders may be fitted to tractors that have programmable hydraulic controls. For example in one case it was found that:
This increases the risks from uncontrolled operation and meant that the operator could potentially leave the operating position (the driver’s seat) and enter the danger area around the loader whilst it was operating. Other people in the vicinity of the loader could also be at risk.
Any loader that operates through the tractor on-board auxiliary spool valves and has programmable hydraulics is potentially affected. This could include loaders that are supplied both as original equipment with the tractor and also as loaders purchased separately as after-market accessories. Users may have purchased hydraulic accessories that permit the loader to be connected to the spool valves offering the programmable function. Loaders and tractors that do not have programmable functions are not affected so no action is required for these machines. The Sector is unable to provide a definitive list of which makes/models may be affected.
Loaders that operate in the manner described above do not meet the 'hold-to-run' function required by the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC and specified in the harmonised standard BS EN12525:2000+A2:2010 'Agricultural machinery – Front loaders – safety'. Programmable sequences (such as repetitive loading functions) that still require 'hold-to-run' control are acceptable.
The Sector has approached the AEA (Agricultural Engineers Association), as the UK manufacturers’ and importers’ representative, to raise this issue with relevant AEA members who include most of the major tractor and loader manufacturers.
HSE has advised AEA to instruct their members;
Inspectors are asked to note this information and to raise the issue with duty holders at relevant inspections, investigations or complaints where they encounter tractor- mounted front end loaders.
The benchmark is nil or negligible where the loader controls are hold-to-run. Where the controls can be programmed there is a remote possibility that the operator could enter the danger zone and a substantial risk gap is indicated by the EMM.
For further advice please contact Agriculture Waste and Recycling Sector – Safety team, Worcester.
BS EN12525:2000+A2:2010 'Agricultural machinery – Front loaders – safety'.