This Technical Measures Document deals with design codes relating to roadways, site traffic control and immobilisation of vehicles.
Related Technical Measures documents are Site Security.
The good design of roadways and the control of traffic on-site are important factors in the prevention of road traffic accidents and an important consideration in the prevention of major accident hazards on-site. Collisions between moving vehicles, collisions between pedestrians and moving vehicles, or the impact of a vehicle with stationary plant, vehicles or equipment can lead to physical injuries and damage or a loss of containment of chemicals. The detailed design and construction of roadways is outside the scope of this technical measures document but some of the important considerations relating to roadway design are highlighted below.
In addition the safe and correct immobilisation of vehicles during tanker loading and unloading operations and at other times when on site is also an important factor in the prevention of site major accident hazards.
This technical measures document considers the following elements:
In principle the road layout, signing and marking should be as similar to the public road network as possible and be such that all road users can reasonably understand what is required of them. Roads should be designed to accommodate the largest vehicles that may have to use them in respect of pavement construction, width, radius, gradient, clearance and visibility.
Access routes on-site are required for pedestrians, cyclists and road traffic. Access is required for the transport of equipment and materials, for emergency vehicle access and maintenance purposes. Roadways and access routes should be designed to provide a safe environment for all users and hence reduce the likelihood of road traffic accidents occurring.
The following are important considerations in the design of road layout:
However, for the majority of industrial sites with an existing infrastructure road layouts cannot be readily amended.
Depending on the size of the site the road layout should preferably be a looped arrangement, which avoids the need for reversing. In smaller sites, a cul-de-sac may be acceptable subject to the provision of adequate turning facilities, which may be in the form of a hammerhead but preferably a turning circle.
In larger sites, individual access roads should feed to the main distributor road, which should not provide direct access to individual factory units. All two-way industrial roads should have a minimum width of 7.3 metres. Curves should be of sufficiently large radius to permit HGVs to pass without the need for local widening. Only where this is not reasonably practicable should local widening be provided to cater for the swept path of HGV vehicles. Individual premises should have an access of minimum width of 6.1 metres. Standard clearance should be provided under all overhead obstructions. Consideration may have to be given to the provision of specific abnormal vehicle routes.
Guidance on turning areas and widening on bends for different vehicle types is provided by the Freight Transport Association publication `Designing for Deliveries'(1999). Computer programs are also commercially available to predict the swept paths of large vehicles as they manoeuvre.
When designing a new or improved layout it is helpful to use a "design" vehicle to achieve efficient and uniform layouts. Most designs will operate satisfactorily if they can cope with the requirements of a 15.5 metre long design articulated vehicle and a 10.0 metre long design rigid vehicle. The design should also consider vertical clearance.
The maximum longitudinal gradient should be 1 in 12 and the minimum channel gradient should be 1 in 125. A crossfall or camber of 1 in 40 provides adequate drainage. If minimum gradients are not provided, surface water will tend to pond, which will be hazardous in freezing conditions. Standing water can also obscure road markings and lead to an increased likelihood of accidents.
Different types of road pavements are available including a flexible pavement which utilises bituminous bound materials, a rigid pavement which utilises pavement quality concrete for the surfacing layers, or a semi-rigid pavement surfaced with block pavers.
Bituminous surfacing will degrade if exposed to oil products and other chemical spillages. Areas where spillages are likely such as loading and unloading areas should utilise a resistant surfacing, such as concrete or some other appropriate material, with drainage facilities that can intercept hazardous chemicals. Tar-based as opposed to bitumen-based binders for surface dressing purposes may also give some degree of oil resistance.
The design of the road pavement will be dependent on the ground conditions at sub-grade level and the expected traffic flow and vehicle type during the design life of the pavement.
Advice on the design of Flexible and Rigid pavements can be found in the DETR Design Manual for Road and Bridges Volume 7, "Pavement Design and Maintenance".
Advice on the design of block pavements can be found in "the Structural Design of Heavy Duty Pavements for Ports and other Industries" published by the Precast Concrete Paving and Kerb Association.
Most Highway Authorities produce Design Aids for Industrial and Commercial Estate Roads, which give guidance on construction of flexible pavements including the use of block pavers.
Kerbing to roadways should be provided wherever possible to clearly define the roadway and provide a measure of protection. Dropped kerbs should be provided at pedestrian crossing points.
Areas that are vulnerable such as pipebridges, overhead gantries etc should be clearly identified and height restrictions clearly marked.
The standard minimum clearance over every part of the carriageway of a public road is 16 feet 6 inches (5.03 metres). When the clearance over any part is less than this, standard warning signs both on and prior to the structure should be provided. The stated clearance should be at least 75mm less than the measured height.
Heights of vehicle likely to be encountered are 4.2 metres high (i.e. A standard container on a suitable flatbed vehicle). Minimum headroom provided should be 4.65 metres exclusive of any additional space required for lighting units. Where emergency vehicle access is required, the height of such vehicles should be confirmed with the relevant emergency service. Additional clearance will be required if there is a requirement for an overlay in the future. Changes in gradient may also reduce the effective headroom for long vehicles.
Consideration should be given to the design of roadways to provide for road traffic visibility and where this is not possible signs and/or road markings should be provided, as necessary, to warn drivers of hazards. The layout of bends and junctions should be such that a driver can stop before an obstruction in the road taking account of any speed restrictions that are in place. In addition, there should be adequate visibility at junctions so those drivers emerging can see and be seen by approaching drivers.
Visibility requirements are related to vehicle speed and stopping distances. Guidance on visibility requirements can be found in the DETR Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 6.
There should be adequate lighting of site locations and vehicles at all times to enable all persons to work safely and in safety.
Adequate lighting should be provided to all areas and especially to those areas used in darkness hours, or where loading/unloading can be carried out in poor visibility or diminished lighting conditions. As a minimum, lighting should be provided for junctions, around plant and buildings, pedestrian routes and areas where loading/unloading is to be carried out. Guidance for road lighting can be found in BS 5489 `Road Lighting'.
Signs should either be illuminated for night-time visibility or adverse weather conditions, or be suitably reflective. Vehicles on site should use lights/beacons etc in darkness or poor visibility to aid detection by other vehicles.
Consideration should be given to the difference in illumination levels between internal and external areas at the points of access to and from buildings that may hinder detection of vehicle movement.
Roadways, footpaths and hard standings on site should be adequately drained to prevent the build-up of standing water. Drainage should be by gullies or drainage channels. All gratings and channel units should be of appropriate load bearing capacity for the location in which they are set. Connections for surface run-off from roads, hardstandings etc into drainage systems may have to include interception facilities in the case of oil or chemical contamination. Surface run-off will include fire-fighting water.
Safety fences should be provided in accordance with normal highway practice. Additional safety fencing may be required to protect vulnerable plant and equipment from vehicle impact.
Road markings should be provided in accordance with normal highway practice.
Bridges and other structures, which have restrictions on load carrying capacity, should be clearly identified.
Bridges should be designed in accordance with BS 5400 `Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges' and Highways Agency standards.
Parking areas on site for employees, visitors and delivery vehicles should be clearly identified and marked. Staff and visitor car parking areas should be separate from site access routes wherever possible. Provision for disabled users should also be made.
Parking bays should be clearly identified by surface markings in order to avoid random parking arrangements which can introduce additional hazards and increase the likelihood of a road traffic accident.
Lay-bys or similar should be considered to avoid obstruction of the main site access roads.
Secure, convenient and adequate parking areas should be provided on-site for vehicles such that the general roadway is not obstructed. Off-road pull-in areas that are clearly identified should be provided wherever possible.
Guidance for parking arrangements for cars can be found in the DETR publication Design bulletin 32, "Residential roads and footpaths".
Guidance for parking arrangements for larger vehicles can be found in the Freight Transport Association publication "Designing for Deliveries" (1999).
Areas for loading and unloading should preferably be separate from general access areas and loading bay edges should be clearly marked and protected by barriers. Adequate space for vehicle manoeuvring should be available in loading/unloading and delivery areas.
If reversing or manoeuvring into position is required consideration should be given to the provision of physical barriers or the attendance of another person to supervise the movements. Audible warnings for vehicles reversing or manoeuvring are appropriate.
Operators in unloading areas should be provided with suitable refuges and drivers of vehicles should be segregated from dangerous working areas.
Special coatings to road surfaces may be required to provide resistance against chemical attack from spillages.
Kerbing and other containment measures may also be required to ensure that spillages do not spread across adjacent areas. In these areas drainage channels may also be required that drain to collection sumps for reclamation purposes.
Guidance on loading bay arrangements can be found in the Freight Transport Association publication "Designing for Deliveries" (1999).
See also the section on Immobilisation of Vehicles below.
Pedestrians and cyclists should be kept away from vehicle routes wherever possible in order to avoid possible conflict. Separate pedestrian walkways and cycleways that are clearly identified and separated from each other, should be provided. Guard rails or fencing should be provided where appropriate to separate pedestrians and cyclists from vehicles. Pedestrian walkways should be separated from cycleways by surface markings. Additional protection should be provided at exits and entrances from buildings.
Road crossing points for pedestrians and cyclists should be clearly identified and consideration should be given to clearly identifying crossings by traffic lights, zebra markings or other such systems. Zebra crossings can also be incorporated into layout design. Traffic lights and zebra crossings need only be considered when traffic flows do not provide adequate gaps in the traffic for pedestrians and cyclists to cross. Advice on the provision of zebra crossings can be found in the DETR Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, Volume 8.
The positioning of pedestrian and cyclist crossing points should be considered carefully to ensure that all users have adequate visibility.
It may be necessary to erect guard rails to stop pedestrians crossing on corners where visibility is reduced. Guardrails should be set back a minimum of 500mm from the kerb and be designed in accordance with BS 3049 `Pedestrian Guard Rails'.
Where road crossings are wide, it is appropriate to provide central refuges to allow the roadway to be crossed safely in two or more movements. In some circumstances footbridges or subways may be considered necessary
The movement of pedestrians and cyclists onto/off and around site should be considered, not only for routine access between plants during the working day but also for mass movements which may occur at the beginning or end of the working day, during shift changeovers, at lunchtime and under emergency evacuation conditions.
The interaction between pedestrians, cycle traffic and vehicles should be evaluated.
Rail deliveries are generally only applicable for the bulk transfer of raw materials or product onto or off site and are specially designed for that purpose. Special consideration needs to be given to train movements onto and off-site in co-ordination with the relevant train operating company.
Whilst on-site, train movements may restrict normal traffic flow arrangements, either whilst moving into location or whilst being loaded. Special consideration should be given to the segregation of rail traffic from other areas and the provision of suitable barriers and warning signals for locations where rail tracks cross pedestrian footpaths or roadways. HS(G) 153/6 gives standards for level crossings.
The legislative requirements for rail traffic are outside the scope of this document.
Areas of potential road and rail conflict should be given special consideration to ensure that suitable signing and barriers, if required, are provided between road and rail.
Site traffic control relies upon a combination of physical features such as the selection of appropriate vehicles to carry out the necessary work in the conditions that prevail, road layout and marking, signs and signals and other considerations such as systems, procedures and training.
Site traffic control should typically consider the following types of traffic:
Road users, both drivers and pedestrians, should know exactly what is expected of them. This can be achieved by establishing a Road Hierarchy, which is used to provide a consistent standard for each road type in terms of design standard, signing, access constraints etc.
Traffic routes should be determined and can be classified as either access/through routes to site for deliveries, shuttle routes between buildings for on-site activities, or emergency access routes for fire engines, ambulances etc. Careful planning and consideration of site traffic control issues can result in a reduction in the likelihood of collisions between vehicles and/or equipment.
Incompatible types of traffic should be segregated as far as possible to avoid potential interactions between chemicals in the event of a collision between road traffic vehicles or between road traffic and stationary storage facilities or pipelines carrying chemicals.
This guidance is not concerned with traffic control within buildings such as warehouses or process plant areas where special consideration needs to be given to the potential interaction between fork lift trucks and/or pedestrians.
Consideration should be given both to the hazards introduced by the loads being conveyed and the mode of transport used. Chemical hazards are considered elsewhere. Consideration should be given to the physical size, the presence of ignition sources and hot surfaces, the presence of flammable fuels, the possibility of impact caused by size or speed, and loading/unloading issues.
The purpose of the presence of vehicles on site should be assessed. Some vehicles may be used simply for access and the transportation of personnel and others for the delivery of materials (solids, liquids and gases) and equipment to/from site.
Some of the items that may be transported are given below:
Examples of the different types of vehicle which may be present on site on either a routine or an irregular basis are given below and consideration should be given for any possible implications due to variation in height, length, width, weight etc.
Each type of vehicle has different characteristics and introduces different potential problems to site.
An assessment of the risks of transportation of each material/load on site should be carried out, an estimate of the frequency of each delivery made and the access route carefully defined in relation to the hazards present.
In order to assist in controlling traffic flow on-site a number of additional measures can be incorporated in order to manage traffic flow in congested areas and reduce speeds on-site. Such techniques include the following:
Traffic lights can be used to control flow at busy junctions, in narrow locations and at entry and exit locations to the site;
One-way systems should be considered where necessary to reduce the likelihood of collision, reduce congestion and improve traffic movement;
Roundabouts may smooth traffic flow and avoid road traffic turning directly in front of on-coming traffic;
Traffic calming devices such as speed humps, rumble strips, width restrictors etc can be incorporated into road design to encourage a reduction in speed. (Such devices are not appropriate in areas where fork lift trucks routinely operate since they introduce additional hazards for this type of vehicle). The design of such features must be appropriate for the type of traffic envisaged;
Physical barriers should be incorporated into road design to protect vulnerable and hazardous installations such as storage tanks, pipework systems, buildings or pedestrian access areas;
Signs and road markings; and,
Site speed limits.
Physical barriers should be installed, where necessary, adjacent to roadways to reduce the potential impact of road traffic accidents. Consideration should be given to the protection of vulnerable pipework, storage tanks and other plant and equipment. Protective barriers should be designed to BS 7669 `Vehicle Restraint Systems'.
When considering the installation of barriers it is important that visibility is not reduced below acceptable standards for road users and pedestrians.
Signs and signals should be used on-site to clearly identify hazards, restrictions and to give directions. Chemical hazards should be identified along with height, width and loading restrictions for pipebridges, arches, bridges etc.
Road markings should be used to designate traffic routes, non-parking areas, give way areas etc in accordance with standard road markings. All signs should be unambiguous, conspicuous, clean and unobstructed. Traffic Signs and road markings wherever possible should comply with the HMSO publication 'Traffic Signs Manual Chapters 1 to 8'.
Hazard warning signs should comply with the Health & Safety (Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996.
Speed sensors and flashing warning signs can be used to improve communication of information to traffic on-site.
A site plan should be available at the site entrance, the site speed limit should be clearly identified and adequate signposting to assist delivery vehicles unfamiliar with the site layout should be provided to assist navigation.
Speed limits should be imposed on larger industrial sites to limit the possibility and severity of accidents. Suitable site speed limits should be determined based upon consideration of what is a safe speed on-site accounting for the type of vehicles using the roadway and its layout, bends, visibility at junctions etc. Limits of 10, 15 or 20 mph may be appropriate depending on the vehicles used, site layout and hazards. This should then be effectively communicated to drivers of all vehicles who require access to the site, sign-posted at appropriate intervals and locations to remind drivers of the speed limit and enforced. To be effective the limits should be enforced by site security and supervisors. Speed limits should be included in the Site Rules with appropriate disciplinary action taken as necessary.
Systems to prevent movement of tankers during loading and off-loading procedures which involve the bulk transfer of materials either from or to storage facilities can either be built into the design of the road tanker or be site-based. These facilities generally involve some form of interlock system and can be a combination of hard-wire interlock systems and software based interlock systems. Other systems that involve devices to shut off flow in the event of high flow conditions being detected can also be used. Such transfers normally involve the use of flexible pipework connections either supplied by the road tanker haulage company or by the site. (For the issues associated with the maintenance, inspection and testing of flexible pipework connections see Design Codes - Pipework. Immobilisation of vehicles during such operations is important to reduce the risk of leaks/spillages of materials during transfer, which could lead to the instigation of a major accident on site.
A basic requirement for any tanker loading/off-loading area is that the ground in the location should be level or gently sloping (a slope for drainage of maximum 1:30 should be considered). Discharging of road tankers on sloping areas should be avoided since it may not be possible to contain potential spillages and there is an increased likelihood of vehicle movement.
For other vehicle deliveries on-site, involving delivery of bulk solids by tipper lorry or small packages, e.g. pallets or drums, loading and off-loading is generally carried out without any specific interlock systems in place. Cordoning off an area can be considered in addition to standard provisions such as engaging the handbrake and removing vehicle keys.
As a general rule the keys for vehicles such as Fork Lift Trucks, Mobile Cranes and other site based vehicles should not be left in the ignition systems as a precaution against unauthorised use, theft, damage or misuse.
Systems exist on tankers which interlock the vehicle braking system with the removal of the delivery hose. The vehicle braking system can only be released when the delivery hose is re-stowed. Such systems are designed to ensure that the tanker can not be driven away with flexible pipework still connected and chemicals being transferred. There is a risk of accident if such a system can be defeated by the use of an independent delivery hose arrangement in preference to the delivery hose stowed on the vehicle.
Another system involves an interlock between the vehicle braking system and a locked cap at the delivery or offloading point. Removing the delivery cap automatically results in the road tanker braking system being applied and it can only then be released when the delivery cap is refitted.
A number of variations of the above systems can be considered whereby the vehicle braking system is applied for the duration of the transfer period because of one or more other components of the road tanker system being used and hence interlocked with the braking system.
Reliance on road vehicle based systems however assumes that the interlock systems are checked and maintained by the road haulage companies and are therefore not directly under the control of the site operator. As a result it is usual for additional precautions to be taken either instead of or in addition to those described above.
A variety of different site based schemes can be considered for immobilising vehicles and ensuring safe operations during loading/unloading procedures.
In the simplest form, chocks can be positioned beneath the wheels of the road tanker in order to immobilise the vehicle. The chocks will provide some form of resistance against road tanker movement in the event of any attempt to move the vehicle.. There is the possibility that the chocks may not be removed when the loading operation has been completed leading to problems.
Removing and retaining the road tanker vehicle keys in a control room or remote location can also be considered.
However, such systems rely upon manual intervention and may not therefore be relied upon.
Other systems for dedicated loading/unloading facilities may involve automatic barriers that should be lowered before the offloading/loading valves can be operated. These barriers can be automatically interlocked through a computer system (DCS or similar) to the operation of the loading valves or interlocked via a physical system (key interlock system or similar). Motion detectors attached to the vehicle can also be used.
The advantage of these systems is that they are owned and maintained by the site and are therefore directly under the control of the site.
Many other such systems exist, for example all loading valves in a multi-purpose loading bay facility can be interlocked such that only one valve can be opened at a time, etc.
Excess flow valves can be installed in unloading pipework to automatically trip valves shut in the event of an open end on a discharge flexible due to a tanker moving away. Such valves work on the basis that the flowrate should increase if the connection is broken and there will be a reduced pressure drop along the delivery pipework system. Other automatic control systems based on flow detection devices can also be considered.
Similar systems can be considered for filling railcars.
A number of on-going measures should be considered when considering roads and traffic control.
Adequate facilities and materials should be readily available on-site for clean-up of spillages. Any materials used should not directly affect the road surface.
Clean-up operations may extend to the emptying of separators, catch pits and emergency sumps.
Roads, footpaths and surface drainage on site should be adequately maintained. Paved surfaces should be free from pot-holes and other surface defects which may affect vehicles and pedestrians.
Adequate spreading equipment and a supply of grit/sand etc should be readily available on-site for snow and icy conditions.
Systems and procedures should be in place to ensure that site traffic control issues are adequately considered and incorporated into site safety management systems. Consideration should be given to segregating incompatible traffic loads and organising deliveries outside busy periods.
Systems should be in place for assessing the transport requirements, vehicles and routes to be used. Consideration should be given to the necessity for transport, and to a vehicle selection system for the site that considers the design, maintenance and operability of the vehicles to be used.
Operating and maintenance procedures for all vehicles on site should be developed. Maintenance policies should also be developed for roadways, footpaths and the infrastructure items such as structures, drainage, lighting, barriers, signs and markings.
Procedures for accidents to be reported and investigated should exist. Lessons for improving traffic flow and reducing accidents should be learnt.
Normal requirements of Road Traffic Acts should be adhered to on-site. This includes seatbelt and alcohol policies.
Procedures should exist to deal with the increased hazards caused by adverse weather conditions - flooding, snow and ice etc. Procedures for gritting/salting of roadways and pedestrian routes and for snow clearance should be available. Procedures for routine clearance of debris from roadways and road cleaning along with adequate resources should be available.
Standard access routes should be defined and prepared. In the event of site roadworks, temporary construction work or other reasons why areas may be temporarily out of use (cranes, rail delivery etc) a system needs to be in place to ensure that alternative routes are developed, temporary access signs installed etc. Under all circumstances access for emergency vehicles to all facilities should be maintained. Advice on safety measures during roadworks can be found in the DETR publication - Chapter 8 of the Traffic Signs Manual `Traffic Safety Measures and Signs for Road Works and Temporary Situations'
For those sites where offloading/loading can result in temporary road closures being necessary, care should be taken that a combination of more than one road closure at a time does not lead to areas of site becoming temporarily inaccessible for pedestrians, or emergency vehicles.
Visitors to site require special consideration - see also Technical Measures document - Site Security. Visitors should be the subject of suitable reception and security checks prior to access to site. Visitor vehicles should be separated from site operations as far as possible. Prior to access to site visitors should be made aware of vehicle restrictions and safety considerations. Pedestrian visitors should be accompanied whilst on-site in operational areas.
Drivers of vehicles arriving on site should report to site security prior to entry for authorisation, examination of delivery documentation etc. Site security personnel should make visitors and delivery drivers aware at this stage of site traffic procedures and any temporary amendments to access routes that are in force. Site security personnel should monitor and control access of vehicles to site to avoid traffic congestion on-site and in the vicinity of the site entry/exits. This is especially important at times of mass migration of personnel onto or off site. Consideration should be given to staggering deliveries of chemicals to site to avoid clashes and to avoid busy entry and exit times. Special consideration should be given to drivers who may be unfamiliar with the site layout and those for whom English is not their first language and may not understand the instructions, warnings and hazards on site.
Security personnel, and others responsible for plant/process areas, should enforce parking regulations on site to avoid hazards caused by vehicle obstructions.
Site based vehicles should be routinely inspected and maintained to set standards and procedures to ensure roadworthiness and the effectiveness of safety systems such as brakes, lights, horns, indicators etc. Daily pre-use checks for site based vehicles such as fork lift trucks should be considered. There should be a clear procedure for reporting and correcting defects in vehicles and maintenance records should be available for inspection.
Systems should be in place to ensure effective communication between gatehouse and operators accepting delivery on-site to warn of the arrival of delivery vehicles.
CCTV systems can be considered as a mechanism for managing and controlling road traffic systems.
Training is an essential component of site traffic control and should cover not only those engaged in driving and operating vehicles on site, but also pedestrians and those responsible for monitoring and enforcing traffic control on site. The latter is usually the responsibility of the site security/gatehouse who initially control access to the site.
Training of site personnel engaged in driving site based vehicles is an essential part of the prevention of site traffic accidents. Site based personnel should be made aware of the hazards of driving fork lift trucks for example and should be authorised or, where necessary, licensed to drive and be routinely checked for competence . Unauthorised personnel should not be allowed to drive vehicles on site.
Training for all site staff should cover technical issues such as - vehicle and equipment operation, hazard awareness, speed limits, parking and loading requirements, safe operating practices etc, site layout, traffic routes, reporting procedures etc.
The competence of third party delivery drivers on site can be assessed by checking the health & safety standards of contractors and their sub-contractors in relation to their selection and training procedures, maintenance of vehicles, use of regular or ad-hoc drivers, accident and safety records etc. The company may undertake spot checks and inspections of delivery vehicles to ensure suitable road safety standards, driver competence and vehicle maintenance is being carried out.
HSE Guidance Note GS9(R) - Road Transport in Factories and Similar Workplaces - Revised January 1992 provided guidance for the movement of vehicles at workplaces and into and out of industrial premises.
HSE Guidance Note HS(G)6 - Lift Trucks discusses the special problems associated with the use of fork lift trucks for mechanical handling purposes
The Workplace (Health & Safety at Work) Regulations 1992 place requirements on employers concerning the organisation of traffic routes.
Regulation 17 discusses the organisation of traffic routes and requires that "all routes shall be suitably indicated";
Regulation 12 requires the construction and maintenance of fit for purpose roads;
Regulation 8 requires the provision of suitable and sufficient lighting.
The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1992 relate to employers responsibilities for vehicles.
The Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions Regulations 1994 set requirements to be met in terms of visual communications for safe internal transport.
Further Reading Material
Lees, F.P., 'Loss Prevention in the Process Industries: Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control', Volumes 1-3, Second Edition, 1996, Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-1547-8.
Case Studies Illustrating the Importance of Roadways / Site Traffic Control / Immobilisation of Vehicles