This Technical Measures Document has not yet been reviewed by HSE Reviewers.The relevant Level 2 Criteria are:
Buildings and structures are provided on major hazard plant for a number of purposes. Buildings may serve to simply protect the plant or control systems from weather conditions or may be provided as accommodation or shelter. More importantly they may be part of the overall containment strategy i.e. to prevent, control or mitigate major accident events. Other structures are provided as support for plant either within buildings or externally. Failures of buildings and structures closely associated with major hazards plant may directly impinge upon the plant itself thus initiating a hazardous event. It is therefore clearly important that buildings and structures are designed to withstand all foreseeable loadings and operational extremes throughout the life of the plant.
Buildings and structures should be designed to sound engineering principles in accordance with appropriate design codes and fit for purpose. Considerations should be:
Buildings should be designed in accordance with BS 6399 when considering extreme weather. Part 2 provides advice on design for Wind Loadings and Part 3 for Imposed Roof Loads. There is a strong probabilistic element in the design methods in that it is not possible to define the precise loads to which the building or plant structure may be subjected.
BS 6399 is only appropriate if the response of the structure can be considered to be static; structures with a dynamic response are not covered within the scope.
Historical meteorological data for the plants location which is required to form the basis of the criteria for design should be obtained from the UK Meteorological Office. Other relevant codes are BS 8100 for Lattice Towers and Masts and Shore Protection Manual.
Design of non-standard structures and buildings will require special consideration, including structural analysis calculations as appropriate.
Plants should be provided with adequate stormwater drains to deal with potential flooding. As with other extreme weather situations, the starting point is to consider historical meteorological data. Some regions will be far more vulnerable to flooding and particular attention should be paid to this aspect in positioning safety critical plant, equipment and control systems to allow safe shutdown. Design methods for dealing with stormwater are described in ‘Contain liquid spills and improve safety with a flooded stormwater sewer, Mason and Arnold, Chemical Engineering 91, 105’. The design should include catchment basins correctly sized to ensure that contaminated water is not released to the environment. There are two possible systems i.e. a gravity flow system and a fully flooded system. In gravity flow systems the lines are designed to run about three-quarters full at a slope of about 0.6 to 0.8% to a catchbasin with a sand trap and liquid seal. In the fully flooded system a dam is placed at the entrance to the collection sump which causes the sewer to become fully flooded. The advantage of this system is that it prevents the passage of flammable vapours and burning liquids along the sewer.
A further most important aspect to consider when designing buildings to cope with flooding is the possibility that tanks may float when subject to buoyancy forces. This will be particularly important where tanks are within wells or deep bunds and may bring about catastrophic failure of the tank and associated pipework with subsequent releases of hazardous substances to the environment and possible domino effects.
In general, the UK is a low risk area for earthquakes and it is almost always possible to dismiss the risk from such events on frequency grounds. Where it is considered that the consequences of catastrophic plant failure is of such magnitude that it may not be tolerated at the estimated frequency then the approach taken for the Nuclear Industry as outlined in the HSE document ‘ Nuclear Safety. Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Reactors, 1979’ may be appropriate. Earthquake-resistant design involves the consideration of the complete design including ground conditions. Design methods are given in ‘Uniform Building Code, International Conference of Building Officials, USA 1991’ of detailed dynamic analysis based upon the design basis earthquake or ‘DD ENV 1998 Eurocode: Design provisions for Earthquake Resistant Structures (Draft)’ may be used.
Buildings and structures should be designed to withstand fires and explosions, if their failure causes additional hazards or domino effects. Methods of Fire Protection are discussed in the Technical Measures Document on Active / Passive Fire Protection. In general, where structures are required to provide fire resistance for a period of time in the event of fire, water spray or insulating coatings can be applied.
Buildings and structures are vulnerable to overpressures, shock or blast waves and missiles generated by explosions. These may be:
Experimentally, normally designed plants have withstood overpressures of about 0.3 bar (5 psig).
Where the design basis for safety relies upon the building or structure remaining intact following significant explosions/overpressure then appropriate design methods should be used. Design for such events is often carried out by considering the equivalent static pressure exerted by the blast. However it is preferable to use dynamic structural analysis. It is important to use a blast profile that accurately reflects the event being considered. Condensed phase explosives (TNT) blast profiles that are readily available are not representative of profiles for vapour cloud explosions etc. Design methods often include allowing for some measures of explosion relief via fragile roofs or walls which allow venting to a safe place so as not to injure people or damage neighbouring property. This is particularly relevant to warehouses storing drums/cylinders of flammable substances (see HS(G)51 Storage of flammable liquids in containers).
Relevant design codes include ‘The design of structures to resist explosions TM5 1300’ , ‘Protective Construction Design Manual , ESL-TR-87-57’ and ‘Fundamentals of Protective Design (conventional weapons), TM5-855’.
Missiles may be classified as primary or secondary. Primary missiles are generated from explosions or overpressures within vessels or pipes causing their fragmentation whereas secondary missiles are generated as objects pick up energy from a blast wave. Consideration should be given to eliminating possible secondary missiles such as loose equipment, light fittings etc in the design of buildings vulnerable to blasts.
There are various methods available to determine the effects of missiles upon buildings and structures and design barricades to protect more vulnerable plant. Some simple empirical methods such as that provided in ‘The Design of Barricades, for Hazardous Pressure Systems, CV Moore, Nuclear Eng. Des. 5, 81 1967’ and ‘High Pressure Safety Code, Cox BG, Saville G, High Press Technology Assoc. 1975’ and more complex models such as ‘Explosions Hazards and Evaluation, WE Baker et al , Elsevier, Amsterdam 1983’. Factors that need to be determined are the size, initial velocity, angle of departure, flight trajectory and the target vulnerability.
For occupied buildings, a methodology is presented in the recent CIA/CISHEC guidance CIA Guidance for the location and design of occupied building on chemical manufacturing sites. Further details are given in the Technical Measures Document on Control Room Design.
Piping containing hazardous fluids should be protected from damage by external mechanical impacts such as those imposed by explosions and missiles. Pipe supports and bridges should be designed with sufficient mechanical strength for the loads exerted on them. This is considered further in the Technical Measures Document on Design Codes - Pipework.
Falling masonry and steelwork can initiate major accidents by damaging plant, it is therefore important that buildings and structures are maintained to a high degree of integrity. Regular inspections should be carried out by a competent person and systems should be in place to ensure that any remedial work required is undertaken promptly. See also Technical Measures Document on Inspection / Non-Destructive Testing (NDT).
Bunds are an essential secondary containment for hazardous liquids, particularly where there are large quantities stored or in process. (see Technical Measures Document on Secondary Containment). Materials of construction should be capable of withstanding the mechanical and thermal shock that occurs on catastrophic failure of the primary containment. Bunds are generally fabricated from brick/mortar or concrete but where liquids are being stored above their boiling point additional insulation, e.g. vermiculite mortar, may be added as cladding to reduce the evaporation rate. Such materials provide adequate chemical resistance to most liquids. However, where surfaces may be exposed to strong acids for longer periods, acid resistant coatings such as phenolic resins should be used.
Care must be taken in the design of the bund wall to withstand the dynamic loads upon bund walls when a large liquid release occurs. Previous practices have been to design bunds to withstand only the hydrostatic load within the tank from which it is released. It has been estimated that the dynamic load at the base of the bund wall may be six times this hydrostatic pressure.
Where bunds are particularly deep, consideration will need to be given to buoyancy forces when filling with liquid. which may cause catastrophic failure of the tank and associated pipework.
Further consideration of the design of bunds is included in the Technical Measures Document on Secondary Containment.
Buildings and structures should be designed to deal with flammable and toxic liquid spillages. It is normal to provide 3 separate effluent systems i.e. open drainage channels/sewers for clean stormwater run-off, a closed domestic sewer and a closed sewer for aqueous effluent. The requirement for stormwater drains is covered above.
Aqueous effluent systems should be designed to prevent spread of hazardous liquids and vapours around the site. This is particularly important for volatile and/or non-water miscible flammable substances which may find sources of ignition some distance from the origin of the spill. Run-off from plant areas should be directed to interceptors or sumps which may provide separation of non-water miscible substances and sampling prior to discharge. Consideration should be given to:
In most instances standard materials of construction i.e. concrete, brickwork will be adequate. However where strong acids are likely to be present for prolonged periods, consideration should be given to the use of acid resistant coatings. This should be extended to protection of structural steelwork that may be exposed to corrosive liquids and vapours.
Further consideration of design of plant drainage systems is included in the Technical Measures Document on Secondary Containment.
There are a large number of design codes covering buildings but most are outside the scope of this document. Relevant codes are listed below together with general references and HSE guidance notes on particular relevant aspects.
Lees, F.P., 'Loss Prevention in the Process Industries: Hazard Identification, Assessment and Control', Second Edition, 1996.
Mecklenburgh, J.C., ‘Process plant layout’, Godwin, London, 1985.
HSE, Nuclear Safety. Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Reactors, 1979.